Was Einstein Right Or Wrong?
Copyright ©2015 David V Connell.
First, we need to remember that the laws of physics are proportional relationships between physical items, that those laws are part of the laws of nature and must be the same in all parts of the universe. Equations can only be created when a measuring system is defined. When such systems are invented to quantify the relationships so that the logic of mathematics can be applied, equations are produced that contain factors of proportionality, the numerical values of which depend on the definition of the units chosen. Therefore, if the size of units change, as occurs in relativistic circumstances (within the same measuring system), the values of those factors of proportionality may need to change to preserve the validity of the equations. The factor of proportionality is the ratio of the two variables, which can change. Einstein did not allow the factors of proportionality to change - he assumed the EQUATIONS were the laws of physics and did not change. This is confirmed by a sentence in his June 1905 paper where he invokes the principle of relativity to demand that no change occurs when a frame of reference is accelerated!
It is obvious that those factors (being mathematical constants) must not change their value in any one inertial FoR, but they could have different values in other inertial frames attached to objects that have been accelerated relative to the home frame (then known as moving frames). It is shown below that most do, indeed, have different values in moving frames; they are local constants. Just a few are universal constants that do not change their value in any frame. This enables the laws of physics to be the same everywhere.
The shortest route to proving whether Einstein was right or wrong is by considering the Neils Bohr equation for frequency (1913) for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics, where he showed that the frequency change is proportional to the change in mass, which seems to allow only an increase in frequency for an increase in mass in both stationary and moving frames of reference, yet practical evidence determines that the relative frequency change in moving frames is a decrease by the same relative increase that occurs in stationary frames. The only other factor that could influence the result is the presence of h3 in the denominator of the relation:
f is proportional to M Z2e4/h3.
Einstein had already showed that the change in mass was a function of speed, derived from the kinetic energy applied to the body to cause the motion, the relative change in mass being denoted gamma. Therefore, the increase in mass by the factor gamma in the numerator is reversed by a change in h3 by gamma2. Hence, the moving frame value of h is gamma2/3 ho, and f = gamma -1fo.
For unrestricted speed gamma is 1 + v2/2c2.
But Einstein assumed h could not change, as this would require the speed of light (c) to also change (hc is known to be a Universal Constant) and he had declared c to be constant (because it was a "constant" of proportionality!).
Inserting the new value for h into Bohr's equation for the change in the diameter of the electron gives us the change to length:
l = gamma1/3lo.
Inserting the appropriate values into the two equations for energy
E = hf and E = mc2
results in them both producing the same answer, a feat not accomplished by Einstein's factors.
Also, the density of mass, upon which depends the properties of matter, stays the same in all moving frames of reference, a feat also not accomplished by Einstein's factors, and required by cosmic principles.
Thus, Einstein was WRONG right from the start, his assumed foundations were ill founded.
Many other consequences follow, as indicated in the other articles on this website. Of particular interest to many are the articles on gravity.
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